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tmux-config/README.md
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.tmux

Self-contained, pretty and versatile .tmux.conf configuration file.

Screenshot

Installation

Requirements:

  • tmux >= 2.6 running inside Linux, Mac, OpenBSD, Cygwin or WSL
  • awk, perl and sed
  • outside of tmux, $TERM must be set to xterm-256color

⚠️ Before installing, you may want to backup your existing configuration.

You can install Oh my tmux! at any of the following locations:

  • ~
  • $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/tmux
  • ~/.config/tmux

Installing in ~:

$ cd
$ git clone https://github.com/gpakosz/.tmux.git
$ ln -s -f .tmux/.tmux.conf
$ cp .tmux/.tmux.conf.local .

Installing in $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/tmux:

$ git clone https://github.com/gpakosz/.tmux.git "/path/to/oh-my-tmux"
$ mkdir -p "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/tmux"
$ ln -s "/path/to/oh-my-tmux/.tmux.conf" "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/tmux/tmux.conf"
$ cp "/path/to/oh-my-tmux/.tmux.conf.local" "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/tmux/tmux.conf.local"

Installing in ~/.config/tmux:

$ git clone https://github.com/gpakosz/.tmux.git "/path/to/oh-my-tmux"
$ mkdir -p "~/.config/tmux"
$ ln -s "/path/to/oh-my-tmux/.tmux.conf" "~/.config/tmux/tmux.conf"
$ cp "/path/to/oh-my-tmux/.tmux.conf.local" "~/.config/tmux/tmux.conf.local"

⚠️ When installing $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/tmux or ~/.config/tmux, the configuration file names don't have a leading . character.

You should never alter the main .tmux.conf or tmux.conf file. If you do, you're on your own. Instead, every customization should happen in your .tmux.conf.local or tmux.conf.local customization file copy.

If you're a Vim user, setting the $EDITOR environment variable to vim will enable and further customize the vi-style key bindings (see tmux manual).

If you're new to tmux, I recommend you to read tmux 2: Productive Mouse-Free Development by @bphogan.

Now proceed to adjust your .local customization file copy.

Troubleshooting

  • I'm running tmux HEAD and things don't work properly. What should I do?

    Please open an issue describing what doesn't work with upcoming tmux. I'll do my best to address it.

  • Status line is broken and/or gets duplicated at the bottom of the screen. What gives?

    This particularly happens on Linux when the distribution provides a version of glib that received Unicode 9.0 upgrades (glib >= 2.50.1) while providing a version of glibc that didn't (glibc < 2.26). You may also configure LC_CTYPE to use an UTF-8 locale. Typically VTE based terminal emulators rely on glib's g_unichar_iswide() function while tmux relies on glibc's wcwidth() function. When these two functions disagree, display gets messed up.

    This can also happen on macOS when using iTerm2 and "Use Unicode version 9 character widths" is enabled in Preferences... > Profiles > Text

    For that reason, the default sample .local customization file stopped using Unicode characters for which width changed in between Unicode 8.0 and 9.0 standards, as well as Emojis.

  • I installed Powerline and/or (patched) fonts but can't see Powerline symbols.

    First, you don't need to install Powerline. You only need fonts patched with Powerline symbols or the standalone PowerlineSymbols.otf font. Then make sure your .local customization file copy uses the Powerline code points for tmux_conf_theme_left_separator_XXX values.

  • I'm using Bash On Windows (WSL), colors and the Powerline look are broken.

    There is currently a bug in the new console powering Bash On Windows preventing text attributes (bold, underscore, ...) to combine properly with colors. The workaround is to search your .local customization file copy and replace attributes with 'none'.

    Also, until Window's console replaces its GDI based render with a DirectWrite one, Powerline symbols will be broken.

    The alternative is to use the Mintty terminal for WSL.

Features

  • C-a acts as secondary prefix, while keeping default C-b prefix
  • visual theme inspired by Powerline
  • maximize any pane to a new window with <prefix> +
  • SSH/Mosh aware username and hostname status line information
  • mouse mode toggle with <prefix> m
  • laptop battery status line information
  • uptime status line information
  • optional highlight of focused pane
  • configurable new windows and panes behavior (optionally retain current path)
  • SSH/Mosh aware split pane (reconnects to remote server)
  • copy to OS clipboard (needs xsel, xclip, or wl-copy on Linux)
  • support for 4-digit hexadecimal Unicode characters
  • Facebook PathPicker integration if available
  • Urlscan (preferred) or Urlview integration if available

The "maximize any pane to a new window with <prefix> +" feature is different from builtin resize-pane -Z as it allows you to further split a maximized pane. It's also more flexible by allowing you to maximize a pane to a new window, then change window, then go back and the pane is still in maximized state in its own window. You can then minimize a pane by using <prefix> + either from the source window or the maximized window.

Maximize pane

Mouse mode allows you to set the active window, set the active pane, resize panes and automatically switches to copy-mode to select text.

Mouse mode

Bindings

tmux may be controlled from an attached client by using a key combination of a prefix key, followed by a command key. This configuration uses C-a as a secondary prefix while keeping C-b as the default prefix. In the following list of key bindings:

  • <prefix> means you have to either hit Ctrl + a or Ctrl + b
  • <prefix> c means you have to hit Ctrl + a or Ctrl + b followed by c
  • <prefix> C-c means you have to hit Ctrl + a or Ctrl + b followed by Ctrl + c

This configuration uses the following bindings:

  • <prefix> e opens the .local customization file copy with the editor defined by the $EDITOR environment variable (defaults to vim when empty)

  • <prefix> r reloads the configuration

  • C-l clears both the screen and the tmux history

  • <prefix> C-c creates a new session

  • <prefix> C-f lets you switch to another session by name

  • <prefix> C-h and <prefix> C-l let you navigate windows (default <prefix> n and <prefix> p are unbound)

  • <prefix> Tab brings you to the last active window

  • <prefix> - splits the current pane vertically

  • <prefix> _ splits the current pane horizontally

  • <prefix> h, <prefix> j, <prefix> k and <prefix> l let you navigate panes ala Vim

  • <prefix> H, <prefix> J, <prefix> K, <prefix> L let you resize panes

  • <prefix> < and <prefix> > let you swap panes

  • <prefix> + maximizes the current pane to a new window

  • <prefix> m toggles mouse mode on or off

  • <prefix> U launches Urlscan (preferred) or Urlview, if available

  • <prefix> F launches Facebook PathPicker, if available

  • <prefix> Enter enters copy-mode

  • <prefix> b lists the paste-buffers

  • <prefix> p pastes from the top paste-buffer

  • <prefix> P lets you choose the paste-buffer to paste from

Additionally, copy-mode-vi matches my own Vim configuration

Bindings for copy-mode-vi:

  • v begins selection / visual mode
  • C-v toggles between blockwise visual mode and visual mode
  • H jumps to the start of line
  • L jumps to the end of line
  • y copies the selection to the top paste-buffer
  • Escape cancels the current operation

Configuration

While this configuration tries to bring sane default settings, you may want to customize it further to your needs.

Again, you should never alter the main .tmux.conf or tmux.conf file. If you do, you're on your own.

Please refer to the sample .local customization file to know more about the variables that allow you to alter different behaviors. Upon successful installation, pressing <prefix> e will open your .local customization file copy with the editor defined by the $EDITOR environment variable (defaults to vim when empty).

Enabling the Powerline look

Powerline originated as a status-line plugin for Vim. Its popular eye-catching look is based on the use of special symbols: Powerline Symbols

To make use of these symbols, there are several options:

Then edit your .local customization file copy (with <prefix> e) and adjust the following variables:

tmux_conf_theme_left_separator_main='\uE0B0'
tmux_conf_theme_left_separator_sub='\uE0B1'
tmux_conf_theme_right_separator_main='\uE0B2'
tmux_conf_theme_right_separator_sub='\uE0B3'

The Powerline manual contains further details on how to install fonts containing the Powerline symbols. You don't need to install Powerline itself though.

Configuring the status line

Edit your .local customization file copy (<prefix> e) and adjust the tmux_conf_theme_status_left and tmux_conf_theme_status_right variables to your own preferences.

This configuration supports the following builtin variables:

  • #{battery_bar}: horizontal battery charge bar
  • #{battery_hbar}: 1 character wide, horizontal battery charge bar
  • #{battery_vbar}: 1 character wide, vertical battery charge bar
  • #{battery_percentage}: battery percentage
  • #{battery_status}: is battery charging or discharging?
  • #{circled_session_name}: circled session number, up to 20
  • #{hostname}: SSH/Mosh aware hostname information
  • #{hostname_ssh}: SSH/Mosh aware hostname information, blank when not connected to a remote server through SSH/Mosh
  • #{loadavg}: load average
  • #{pairing}: is session attached to more than one client?
  • #{prefix}: is prefix being depressed?
  • #{root}: is current user root?
  • #{synchronized}: are the panes synchronized?
  • #{uptime_y}: uptime years
  • #{uptime_d}: uptime days, modulo 365 when #{uptime_y} is used
  • #{uptime_h}: uptime hours
  • #{uptime_m}: uptime minutes
  • #{uptime_s}: uptime seconds
  • #{username}: SSH/Mosh aware username information
  • #{username_ssh}: SSH aware username information, blank when not connected to a remote server through SSH/Mosh

Beside the variables mentioned above, the tmux_conf_theme_status_left and tmux_conf_theme_status_right variables support usual tmux syntax, e.g. using #() to call an external command that inserts weather information provided by wttr.in:

tmux_conf_theme_status_right='#{prefix}#{pairing}#{synchronized} #(curl -m 1 wttr.in?format=3 2>/dev/null; sleep 900) , %R , %d %b | #{username}#{root} | #{hostname} '

The sleep 900 call makes sure the network request is issued at most every 15 minutes whatever the value of status-interval.

Weather information from wttr.in

💡 You can also define your own custom variables by writing special functions, see the sample .local customization file for instructions.

Finally, remember tmux_conf_theme_status_left and tmux_conf_theme_status_right end up being given to tmux as status-left and status-right which means they're passed through strftime(). As such, the % character has a special meaning and needs to be escaped by doubling it, e.g.

tmux_conf_theme_status_right='#(echo foo %% bar)'

See also man 3 strftime.

Using TPM plugins

This configuration now comes with built-in TPM support:

  • use the set -g @plugin ... syntax to enable a plugin
  • whenever a plugin introduces a variable to be used in status-left or status-right, you can use it in tmux_conf_theme_status_left and tmux_conf_theme_status_right variables, see instructions above 👆
  • ⚠️ do not add set -g @plugin 'tmux-plugins/tpm' to any configuration file
  • do not add run '~/.tmux/plugins/tpm/tpm' to any configuration file

⚠️ The TPM bindings differ slightly from upstream:

  • installing plugins: <prefix> + I
  • uninstalling plugins: <prefix> + Alt + u
  • updating plugins: <prefix> + u

See the sample .local customization file for instructions.

Using the configuration under Cygwin within Mintty

I don't recommend running this configuration with Cygwin anymore. Forking under Cygwin is extremely slow and this configuration issues a lot of run-shell commands under the hood. As such, you will experience high CPU usage. As an alternative consider using Mintty terminal for WSL.

cygwin

It is possible to use this configuration under Cygwin within Mintty, however support for Unicode symbols and emojis lacks behind Mac and Linux.

Particularly, Mintty's text rendering is implemented with GDI which has limitations:

  • color emojis are only available through DirectWrite starting with Windows 8.1
  • display of double width symbols, like the battery discharging symbol indicator (U+1F50B) is buggy

To get Unicode symbols displayed properly, you have to use font linking. Open regedit.exe then navigate to the registry key at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\FontLink\SystemLink and add a new entry for you preferred font to link it with the Segoe UI Symbol font.

regedit