Yet Another Dotfiles Manager
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## NAME
yadm - Yet Another Dotfiles Manager
## SYNOPSIS
yadm command [options]
yadm git-command-or-alias [options]
yadm init [-f] [-w dir]
yadm clone url [-f] [-w dir] [-b branch] [--bootstrap] [--no-bootstrap]
yadm config name [value]
yadm config [-e]
yadm list [-a]
yadm bootstrap
yadm encrypt
yadm decrypt [-l]
yadm alt
yadm perms
yadm enter [ command ]
yadm git-crypt [ options ]
yadm upgrade
yadm introspect category
## DESCRIPTION
yadm is a tool for managing a collection of files across multiple com-
puters, using a shared Git repository. In addition, yadm provides a
feature to select alternate versions of files for particular systems.
Lastly, yadm supplies the ability to manage a subset of secure files,
which are encrypted before they are included in the repository.
## COMMANDS
git-command or git-alias
Any command not internally handled by yadm is passed through to
git(1). Git commands or aliases are invoked with the yadm man-
aged repository. The working directory for Git commands will be
the configured work-tree (usually $HOME).
Dotfiles are managed by using standard git commands; add, com-
mit, push, pull, etc.
The config command is not passed directly through. Instead use
the gitconfig command (see below).
alt Create symbolic links and process templates for any managed
files matching the naming rules described in the ALTERNATES and
TEMPLATES sections. It is usually unnecessary to run this com-
mand, as yadm automatically processes alternates by default.
This automatic behavior can be disabled by setting the configu-
ration yadm.auto-alt to "false".
bootstrap
Execute $HOME/.config/yadm/bootstrap if it exists.
clone url
Clone a remote repository for tracking dotfiles. After the con-
tents of the remote repository have been fetched, a "merge" of
origin/master is attempted. If there are conflicting files
already present in the work-tree, this merge will fail and
instead a "reset" of origin/master will be done, followed by a
"stash". This "stash" operation will preserve the original data.
You can review the stashed conflicts by running the command
yadm stash show -p
from within your $HOME directory. If you want to restore the
stashed data, you can run
yadm stash apply
or
yadm stash pop
The repository is stored in $HOME/.config/yadm/repo.git. By
default, $HOME will be used as the work-tree, but this can be
overridden with the -w option. yadm can be forced to overwrite
an existing repository by providing the -f option. If you want
to use a branch other than origin/master, you can specify it
using the -b option. By default yadm will ask the user if the
bootstrap program should be run (if it exists). The options
--bootstrap or --no-bootstrap will either force the bootstrap to
be run, or prevent it from being run, without prompting the
user.
config This command manages configurations for yadm. This command
works exactly they way git-config(1) does. See the CONFIGURA-
TION section for more details.
decrypt
Decrypt all files stored in $HOME/.config/yadm/files.gpg. Files
decrypted will be relative to the configured work-tree (usually
$HOME). Using the -l option will list the files stored without
extracting them.
encrypt
Encrypt all files matching the patterns found in $HOME/.con-
fig/yadm/encrypt. See the ENCRYPTION section for more details.
enter Run a sub-shell with all Git variables set. Exit the sub-shell
the same way you leave your normal shell (usually with the
"exit" command). This sub-shell can be used to easily interact
with your yadm repository using "git" commands. This could be
useful if you are using a tool which uses Git directly, such as
tig, vim-fugitive, git-cola, etc.
Optionally, you can provide a command after "enter", and instead
of invoking your shell, that command will be run with all of the
Git variables exposed to the command's environment.
Emacs Tramp and Magit can manage files by using this configura-
tion:
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
'("yadm"
(tramp-login-program "yadm")
(tramp-login-args (("enter")))
(tramp-login-env (("SHELL") ("/bin/sh")))
(tramp-remote-shell "/bin/sh")
(tramp-remote-shell-args ("-c"))))
With this config, use (magit-status "/yadm::"). If you find
issue with Emacs 27 and zsh, trying running (setenv "SHELL"
"/bin/bash").
git-crypt options
If git-crypt is installed, this command allows you to pass
options directly to git-crypt, with the environment configured
to use the yadm repository.
git-crypt enables transparent encryption and decryption of files
in a git repository. You can read https://github.com/AGWA/git-
crypt for details.
gitconfig
Pass options to the git config command. Since yadm already uses
the config command to manage its own configurations, this com-
mand is provided as a way to change configurations of the repos-
itory managed by yadm. One useful case might be to configure
the repository so untracked files are shown in status commands.
yadm initially configures its repository so that untracked files
are not shown. If you wish use the default Git behavior (to
show untracked files and directories), you can remove this con-
figuration.
yadm gitconfig --unset status.showUntrackedFiles
help Print a summary of yadm commands.
init Initialize a new, empty repository for tracking dotfiles. The
repository is stored in $HOME/.config/yadm/repo.git. By
default, $HOME will be used as the work-tree, but this can be
overridden with the -w option. yadm can be forced to overwrite
an existing repository by providing the -f option.
list Print a list of files managed by yadm. The -a option will cause
all managed files to be listed. Otherwise, the list will only
include files from the current directory or below.
introspect category
Report internal yadm data. Supported categories are commands,
configs, repo, and switches. The purpose of introspection is to
support command line completion.
perms Update permissions as described in the PERMISSIONS section. It
is usually unnecessary to run this command, as yadm automati-
cally processes permissions by default. This automatic behavior
can be disabled by setting the configuration yadm.auto-perms to
"false".
upgrade
Version 2 of yadm uses a different directory for storing your
configurations. When you start to use version 2 for the first
time, you may see warnings about moving your data to this new
directory. The easiest way to accomplish this is by running
"yadm upgrade". This command will start by moving your yadm
repo to the new path. Next it will move any configuration data
to the new path. If the configurations are tracked within your
yadm repo, this command will "stage" the renaming of those files
in the repo's index. Upgrading will also re-initialize all sub-
modules you have added (otherwise they will be broken when the
repo moves). After running "yadm upgrade", you should run "yadm
status" to review changes which have been staged, and commit
them to your repository.
You can read https://yadm.io/docs/upgrade_from_1 for more infor-
mation.
version
Print the version of yadm.
## COMPATIBILITY
Beginning with version 2.0.0, yadm introduced a couple major changes
which may require you to adjust your configurations. See the upgrade
command for help making those adjustments.
First, yadm now uses the "XDG Base Directory Specification" to find its
configurations. You can read https://yadm.io/docs/upgrade_from_1 for
more information.
Second, the naming conventions for alternate files have been changed.
You can read https://yadm.io/docs/alternates for more information.
If you want to retain the old functionality, you can set an environment
variable, YADM_COMPATIBILITY=1. Doing so will automatically use the
old yadm directory, and process alternates the same as the pre-2.0.0
version. This compatibility mode is deprecated, and will be removed in
future versions. This mode exists solely for transitioning to the new
paths and naming of alternates.
## OPTIONS
yadm supports a set of universal options that alter the paths it uses.
The default paths are documented in the FILES section. Any path speci-
fied by these options must be fully qualified. If you always want to
override one or more of these paths, it may be useful to create an
alias for the yadm command. For example, the following alias could be
used to override the repository directory.
alias yadm='yadm --yadm-repo /alternate/path/to/repo'
The following is the full list of universal options. Each option
should be followed by a fully qualified path.
-Y,--yadm-dir
Override the yadm directory. yadm stores its data relative to
this directory.
--yadm-repo
Override the location of the yadm repository.
--yadm-config
Override the location of the yadm configuration file.
--yadm-encrypt
Override the location of the yadm encryption configuration.
--yadm-archive
Override the location of the yadm encrypted files archive.
--yadm-bootstrap
Override the location of the yadm bootstrap program.
## CONFIGURATION
yadm uses a configuration file named $HOME/.config/yadm/config. This
file uses the same format as git-config(1). Also, you can control the
contents of the configuration file via the yadm config command (which
works exactly like git-config). For example, to disable alternates you
can run the command:
yadm config yadm.auto-alt false
The following is the full list of supported configurations:
yadm.alt-copy
If set to "true", alternate files will be copies instead of sym-
bolic links. This might be desirable, because some systems may
not properly support symlinks.
NOTE: The deprecated yadm.cygwin-copy option used by older ver-
sions of yadm has been replaced by yadm.alt-copy. The old
option will be removed in the next version of yadm.
yadm.auto-alt
Disable the automatic linking described in the section ALTER-
NATES. If disabled, you may still run "yadm alt" manually to
create the alternate links. This feature is enabled by default.
yadm.auto-exclude
Disable the automatic exclusion of patterns defined in
$HOME/.config/yadm/encrypt. This feature is enabled by default.
yadm.auto-perms
Disable the automatic permission changes described in the sec-
tion PERMISSIONS. If disabled, you may still run yadm perms
manually to update permissions. This feature is enabled by
default.
yadm.auto-private-dirs
Disable the automatic creating of private directories described
in the section PERMISSIONS.
yadm.git-program
Specify an alternate program to use instead of "git". By
default, the first "git" found in $PATH is used.
yadm.gpg-perms
Disable the permission changes to $HOME/.gnupg/*. This feature
is enabled by default.
yadm.gpg-program
Specify an alternate program to use instead of "gpg". By
default, the first "gpg" found in $PATH is used.
yadm.gpg-recipient
Asymmetrically encrypt files with a gpg public/private key pair.
Provide a "key ID" to specify which public key to encrypt with.
The key must exist in your public keyrings. If left blank or
not provided, symmetric encryption is used instead. If set to
"ASK", gpg will interactively ask for recipients. See the
ENCRYPTION section for more details. This feature is disabled
by default.
yadm.ssh-perms
Disable the permission changes to $HOME/.ssh/*. This feature is
enabled by default.
The following four "local" configurations are not stored in the
$HOME/.config/yadm/config, they are stored in the local repository.
local.class
Specify a class for the purpose of symlinking alternate files.
By default, no class will be matched.
local.hostname
Override the hostname for the purpose of symlinking alternate
files.
local.os
Override the OS for the purpose of symlinking alternate files.
local.user
Override the user for the purpose of symlinking alternate files.
## ALTERNATES
When managing a set of files across different systems, it can be useful
to have an automated way of choosing an alternate version of a file for
a different operating system, host, user, etc.
yadm will automatically create a symbolic link to the appropriate ver-
sion of a file, when a valid suffix is appended to the filename. The
suffix contains the conditions that must be met for that file to be
used.
The suffix begins with "##", followed by any number of conditions sepa-
rated by commas.
##<condition>[,<condition>,...]
Each condition is an attribute/value pair, separated by a period. Some
conditions do not require a "value", and in that case, the period and
value can be omitted. Most attributes can be abbreviated as a single
letter.
<attribute>[.<value>]
These are the supported attributes, in the order of the weighted prece-
dence:
template, t
Valid when the value matches a supported template processor.
See the TEMPLATES section for more details.
user, u
Valid if the value matches the current user. Current user is
calculated by running id -u -n.
distro, d
Valid if the value matches the distro. Distro is calculated by
running lsb_release -si or by inspecting the ID from /etc/os-
release.
os, o Valid if the value matches the OS. OS is calculated by running
uname -s.
class, c
Valid if the value matches the local.class configuration. Class
must be manually set using yadm config local.class <class>. See
the CONFIGURATION section for more details about setting
local.class.
hostname, h
Valid if the value matches the short hostname. Hostname is cal-
culated by running uname -n, and trimming off any domain.
default
Valid when no other alternate is valid.
NOTE: The OS for "Windows Subsystem for Linux" is reported as "WSL",
even though uname identifies as "Linux".
You may use any number of conditions, in any order. An alternate will
only be used if ALL conditions are valid. For all files managed by
yadm's repository or listed in $HOME/.config/yadm/encrypt, if they
match this naming convention, symbolic links will be created for the
most appropriate version.
The "most appropriate" version is determined by calculating a score for
each version of a file. A template is always scored higher than any
symlink condition. The number of conditions is the next largest factor
in scoring. Files with more conditions will always be favored. Any
invalid condition will disqualify that file completely.
If you don't care to have all versions of alternates stored in the same
directory as the generated symlink, you can place them in the
$HOME/.config/yadm/alt directory. The generated symlink or processed
template will be created using the same relative path.
Alternate linking may best be demonstrated by example. Assume the fol-
lowing files are managed by yadm's repository:
- $HOME/path/example.txt##default
- $HOME/path/example.txt##class.Work
- $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Darwin
- $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Darwin,hostname.host1
- $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Darwin,hostname.host2
- $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Linux
- $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Linux,hostname.host1
- $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Linux,hostname.host2
If running on a Macbook named "host2", yadm will create a symbolic link
which looks like this:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Darwin,host-
name.host2
However, on another Mackbook named "host3", yadm will create a symbolic
link which looks like this:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Darwin
Since the hostname doesn't match any of the managed files, the more
generic version is chosen.
If running on a Linux server named "host4", the link will be:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##os.Linux
If running on a Solaris server, the link will use the default version:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##default
If running on a system, with class set to "Work", the link will be:
$HOME/path/example.txt -> $HOME/path/example.txt##class.Work
If no "##default" version exists and no files have valid conditions,
then no link will be created.
Links are also created for directories named this way, as long as they
have at least one yadm managed file within them.
yadm will automatically create these links by default. This can be dis-
abled using the yadm.auto-alt configuration. Even if disabled, links
can be manually created by running yadm alt.
Class is a special value which is stored locally on each host (inside
the local repository). To use alternate symlinks using class, you must
set the value of class using the configuration local.class. This is
set like any other yadm configuration with the yadm config command. The
following sets the class to be "Work".
yadm config local.class Work
Similarly, the values of os, hostname, and user can be manually over-
ridden using the configuration options local.os, local.hostname, and
local.user.
## TEMPLATES
If a template condition is defined in an alternate file's "##" suffix,
and the necessary dependencies for the template are available, then the
file will be processed to create or overwrite files.
Supported template processors:
default
This is yadm's built-in template processor. This processor is
very basic, with a Jinja-like syntax. The advantage of this pro-
cessor is that it only depends upon awk, which is available on
most *nix systems. To use this processor, specify the value of
"default" or just leave the value off (e.g. "##template").
j2cli To use the j2cli Jinja template processor, specify the value of
"j2" or "j2cli".
envtpl To use the envtpl Jinja template processor, specify the value of
"j2" or "envtpl".
NOTE: Specifying "j2" as the processor will attempt to use j2cli or
envtpl, whichever is available.
If the template processor specified is available, templates will be
processed to create or overwrite files.
During processing, the following variables are available in the tem-
plate:
Default Jinja Description
------------- ------------- --------------------------
yadm.class YADM_CLASS Locally defined yadm class
yadm.distro YADM_DISTRO lsb_release -si
yadm.hostname YADM_HOSTNAME uname -n (without domain)
yadm.os YADM_OS uname -s
yadm.user YADM_USER id -u -n
yadm.source YADM_SOURCE Template filename
NOTE: The OS for "Windows Subsystem for Linux" is reported as "WSL",
even though uname identifies as "Linux".
NOTE: If lsb_release is not available, DISTRO will be the ID specified
in /etc/os-release.
Examples:
whatever##template with the following content
{% if yadm.user == 'harvey' %}
config={{yadm.class}}-{{yadm.os}}
{% else %}
config=dev-whatever
{% endif %}
would output a file named whatever with the following content if the
user is "harvey":
config=work-Linux
and the following otherwise:
config=dev-whatever
An equivalent Jinja template named whatever##template.j2 would look
like:
{% if YADM_USER == 'harvey' -%}
config={{YADM_CLASS}}-{{YADM_OS}}
{% else -%}
config=dev-whatever
{% endif -%}
## ENCRYPTION
It can be useful to manage confidential files, like SSH or GPG keys,
across multiple systems. However, doing so would put plain text data
into a Git repository, which often resides on a public system. yadm can
make it easy to encrypt and decrypt a set of files so the encrypted
version can be maintained in the Git repository. This feature will
only work if the gpg(1) command is available.
To use this feature, a list of patterns must be created and saved as
$HOME/.config/yadm/encrypt. This list of patterns should be relative
to the configured work-tree (usually $HOME). For example:
.ssh/*.key
.gnupg/*.gpg
Standard filename expansions (*, ?, [) are supported. If you have Bash
version 4, you may use "**" to match all subdirectories. Other shell
expansions like brace and tilde are not supported. Spaces in paths are
supported, and should not be quoted. If a directory is specified, its
contents will be included, but not recursively. Paths beginning with a
"!" will be excluded.
The yadm encrypt command will find all files matching the patterns, and
prompt for a password. Once a password has confirmed, the matching
files will be encrypted and saved as $HOME/.config/yadm/files.gpg. The
patterns and files.gpg should be added to the yadm repository so they
are available across multiple systems.
To decrypt these files later, or on another system run yadm decrypt and
provide the correct password. After files are decrypted, permissions
are automatically updated as described in the PERMISSIONS section.
Symmetric encryption is used by default, but asymmetric encryption may
be enabled using the yadm.gpg-recipient configuration.
NOTE: It is recommended that you use a private repository when keeping
confidential files, even though they are encrypted.
Patterns found in $HOME/.config/yadm/encrypt are automatically added to
the repository's info/exclude file every time yadm encrypt is run.
This is to prevent accidentally committing sensitive data to the repos-
itory. This can be disabled using the yadm.auto-exclude configuration.
Using git-crypt
A completely separate option for encrypting data is to install and use
git-crypt. Once installed, you can run git-crypt commands for the yadm
repo by running yadm git-crypt. git-crypt enables transparent encryp-
tion and decryption of files in a git repository. You can read
https://github.com/AGWA/git-crypt for details.
## PERMISSIONS
When files are checked out of a Git repository, their initial permis-
sions are dependent upon the user's umask. Because of this, yadm will
automatically update the permissions of some file paths. The "group"
and "others" permissions will be removed from the following files:
- $HOME/.config/yadm/files.gpg
- All files matching patterns in $HOME/.config/yadm/encrypt
- The SSH directory and files, .ssh/*
- The GPG directory and files, .gnupg/*
yadm will automatically update permissions by default. This can be dis-